Paintings

“Justine”

Original photograph of Justine taken at my studio:

Edited for scale and converted to black and white:


Original wording from a covenant that still exists in a Los Angeles residential deed:

No person other than one of the Caucasian race shall be permitted to occupy any portion of any lot in said plat or any building thereon except a domestic servant actually employed by a Caucasian occupant of said lot or building

At no time shall the land included in said tract be occupied by any negro or person of negro extraction

It is hereby covenanted and agreed by and between the parties hereto and it is a part of the consideration of this indenture, that the said property shall not be sold, leased, or rented to any persons other than of the Caucasian race, nor shall any person or persons other than of Caucasian race be permitted to occupy said lot or lots

said premises shall not be occupied or used by any person or persons other than those of the Caucasian race, provided, however, that the foregoing restriction shall not be construed to prohibit the keeping of domestic servants of any race.”


KCET public Television article on the racial covenants in Los Angeles of the late 19th and early 20th century

https://www.kcet.org/history-society/a-southern-california-dream-deferred-racial-covenants-in-los-angeles


Shelley v. Kraemer, the Supreme Court decision that struck down housing covenants in 1948:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shelley_v._Kraemer